The history of violence against lgbt people in the united states is made up of assaults on gay men, lesbians, bisexual, and transgender individuals (), legal responses to such violence, and hate crime statistics in the united states of america. Those targeted by such violence are believed to violate heteronormative rules and contravene perceived protocols of gender and sexual roles. Matthew wayne shepard (december 1, 1976 october 12, 1998) was a gay american student at the university of wyoming who was beaten, tortured, and left to die near laramie on the night of october 6, 1998. He was taken by rescuers to poudre valley hospital in fort collins, colorado, where he died six days later from severe head injuries. Clinton unveils a package of initiatives that includes expanding federal hate crimes laws to encompass crimes aimed at people because they are gay or disabled, or because of their sex. Senate panel to urge the passage of federal hate crimes legislation. constitutional questions about hate crime laws in the united states were settled in the early 1990s. Yet, critics persist in arguing that the laws punish improper thinking. In this context, this article addresses the question of the justification of punishing motivationor biasbehind hate crimes when the type of expression and the thought behind it used to indicate motivation are. Third, and most important, the national juvenile hate crime study was configured to a much more inclusive definition of hate crime. More recently, in 1999, there were 7,876 hate crime incidents reported to the fbi. The incidents involved 9,302 separate offenses, 9,802 victims, and 7,271 offenders. Hate crimes can have significant and wide-ranging psychological consequences, not only for their direct victims but for others as well. Study of lesbian and gay victims of violent hate crimes documented that they experienced higher levels of psychological distress, including symptoms of depression and anxiety, than lesbian and gay victims of comparable crimes. state and federal hate crime laws punish crimes involving discrimination on the basis of a persons group characteristic, such as race, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, gender, or disability. The supreme court has refined the definition of hate crime through decisions which affirmed one type of hate crime law, but rejected another. Uk) study one in eight gay people and 75 of trans people the target of hate crime each year in uk (pinknews. Uk) death threats, symbols of death haunt belize lgbts (76crimes.). Hate crime laws punishment to fit the crime hate crime laws punishment to fit the crime michael lieberman &squarf summer 2010. Jesse larner sounds a shrill alarm in his broadside against hate crime laws (hate crimethought crime, spring 2010), raising a variety of seemingly dire libertarian, first amendment, and slippery-slope arguments.